28 octubre 2009

Dos lecturas

Leí ayer en 'Platforms and Prayer Books' p.282, una referencia a un texto de la Pesikta de Rav Kahana en el que se analiza cómo Dios se dirige a cada uno de nosotros de forma personal, individual, incluso en el más comunitario de los acontecimientos de la tradición, el matán Torá - la entrega de la Torá -.Buscando en Internet el texto di con una drashá del JTS.

Por la noche, la lectura del día del Tania, en Chabad en español, hablaba del deber de cada uno de descubrir secretos de sabiduría.

Textos de mundos tan distantes - por una parte un libro sobre los siddurim reformistas; por otra, las enseñanzas del Rebbe de Lubavitch- conectados y desarrollando el mismo asunto.

La paradoja se completa con el hecho de que realizamos el descubrimiento del deber individual al dirigirse Dios a cada uno personalmente en el estudio comunitario de los textos de la tradición antigua y de la actual.

God as a statue with faces on every side

The Sinai event was so powerful in the Jewish imagination that our tradition abounds with interpretations of the revelation at Sinai. Here is one of the most powerful of these traditional interpretations:

R. Levi said, The Holy One appeared to them as though He were a statue with faces on every side. A thousand people might be looking at the statue, but it would appear to be looking at each one of them.

So, too, when the Holy One spoke, each and every person in Israel could say, "The Divine Word is addressing me." Note that Scripture does not say, "I am the Lord your God"; [in the plural] but "I am the Lord thy God" (Exod. 20:2) [in the singular].

R. Yose bar R. Hanina said: The Divine Word spoke to each and every person according to his particular capacity. And do not be surprised at this idea. For when manna came down for Israel, each and every person tasted it in keeping with his own capacity—infants in keeping with their capacity; young men in keeping with their capacity; and the elderly in keeping with their capacity . . .

Now what was true about the manna—that each and every person tasted it according to his own particular capacity—was equally true about the Divine Word. Each and every person heard it according to his own particular capacity. Thus David said "The voice of the Lord is in strength" (Ps: 29:4). Not "The voice of the Lord is in His strength" [as we might expect from standard Hebrew pronoun usage], but the voice of the Lord is in the strength and capacity of each and every person. Therefore the Holy One said: Do not be misled because you hear many voices. Know ye that I am He who is one and the same: I am the Lord thy God. (Pesikta de Rav Kahana 12:25)

One of the most striking things about this text is that, in its opening, God is compared quite literally to an idol! For the Hebrew word used here is ikonin, a loan word from Greek which we recognize from our English use of icon (as in iconoclast, literally "one who smashes idols"). Having fought the long battle against idolatry, it appears the midrash is able to use the metaphor of an idol to speak about God; truly a remarkable turn of events.

Although the use of the metaphor of the statue with many faces here is surprising, it is meant to communicate one specific idea: God is viewed as addressing each individual so directly that standing at Sinai one might have said, "The Divine Word is addressing me." This reading, as we often see in midrash, turns upon an attempt to find a hidden meaning in the Bible' s particular use of language, here the singular pronoun of Exodus 20:2, "thy God," something hard to capture in modern English.

Our midrash here is built as a metaphor (God is like a statue with faces on every side) that is explained by means of another metaphor or analogy (the experience at Sinai was like the experience the Israelites later had with the manna). Of course, it is precisely that orientation toward the individualized dimension of the giving of the Torah that makes this midrash so fascinating. In a sense, such a reading flies in the face of the conventional understanding of the revelation at Sinai as it is described in the Bible. Our natural assumption from reading the biblical text is that Sinai was seen as essentially a communal experience— the person is plural, as it were: all the people say, "We will do and we will obey" (Exod. 24:7).

And yet our midrash here moves in the opposite direction. Sinai, according to both R. Levi and R. Yose, was the individual experience of each Israelite, seen through the lens of the individual's eyes: "The Divine Word is addressing me." Yose's analogy of the manna takes the idea one step further. He is attempting to explain what such an individualized experience of the "Divine Word" might mean. It was not only, as R. Levi saw it, a revelation to each person, as I might feel the Mona Lisa's eyes staring directly at me in the presence of the painting; it was a revelation appropriate "to each and every person according to his particular capacity." In other words, the content of the revelation was specifically appropriate to each individual.

Each of us, in other words, is going to experience God in his or her own way, a way that emanates from who we are and what we want or expect from that encounter with God. In addition, that experience is connected to what we are capable of understanding—it is connected to the competencies, whether they be of mind or of heart, that we bring to it. That is, if even at Sinai, revelation was individualized, certainly in ordinary human life the experience of God is rooted in who we are ourselves. As we enter the festival of Shavu'ot this year, let us remember its centrality to us as Jews. It is the beginning of our people's romance with study and it is the most powerful example of the encounter in life between human beings and the Divine.

Tomado de JTS

El deber de descubrir secretos de sabiduría

"Ahora bien, los seres celestiales no tienen el poder [necesario] para refinar y elevar aquello que está [en exilio] en kelipat noga como resultado de la "rotura de los recipientes". Sólo los seres terrenales [pueden hacerlo], porque están investidos en un cuerpo material, [conocido como] "la piel de la serpiente", que deriva de kelipat noga. Estas [almas encarnadas] debilitan su fuerza [—la de esta kelipá—] quebrando las pasiones, subyugando de esa manera a la sitra ajará, de modo que "todos los obreros del mal [las kelipot] serán dispersados". Por eso los seres celestiales vienen a escuchar las novedades de Torá de los seres terrenales, [para oír] los secretos de sabiduría que ellos innovan y revelan, hasta ese momento cautivos en exilio. Cada judío puede revelar secretos de sabiduría, (revelar) y descubrir un discernimiento novedoso, ya sea en la halajá o la agadá, en los [planos] revelados o místicos [de la Torá], conforme la naturaleza de la raíz de su alma. De hecho, uno tiene el deber de hacerlo, para perfeccionar su alma al elevar todas las chispas que cayeron en su porción y suerte, como es sabido."

Igueret HaKodesh, cap. 26, Rabbi Shneur Zalman

23 octubre 2009

Kabalat Shabat en directo con La Javurá

La comunidad conservadora de Valencia, La Javurá, dirigida por Alba Toscano, ha comenzado a transmitir los servicios de Kabalat Shabat en directo a través de Internet los viernes a las 20:00 (hora de España). Creo que una gran noticia. Es la primera comunidad conservadora que transmite el servicio en español.




Otras comunidades lo radian o lo graban, sobre todo reformistas - por ejemplo Emanu-El, uno de los pilares de la Society for Classical Reform Judaism.

En Canadá existe una comunidad conservadora, Shaarey Zedek , que emite en inglés el servicio de Sajarit de Shabat. Como curiosidad se puede encontrar en su web un enlace a la Responsa en la que el movimiento conservador autoriza estas retransmisiones.

21 octubre 2009

Union Prayer Book, en Google

Creo que una gran noticia. Está CASI al completo la edición de 1940. Revisada en el 1967. E impresa en 1978. La CCAR - Conferencia Central de Rabino Americanos (los Rabinos Reformistas) - han dado la autorización a Google Books para que aparezca. Hay varias entradas ya en este blog sobre este Sidur (buscar 'Union Prayer Book').

En principio puede dar la sensación de que uno echa en falta asuntos importantes que sí están en otros sidurim reformistas o conservadores. Sin embargo, debo decir que en el uso diario privado ha sido un gran descubrimiento para mi: su brevedad y su profundidad, su potencia poética y su claro mensaje de paz y de justicia social, ayudan a mantener la Kavaná - concentración - del rezo en la locura del día a día de la sociedad actual. Es muy probable que quienes lo editaron no pensaran precisamente en que se utilizaría en casa, sino que lo crearan para la Sinagoga. Y, sin embargo, lo reivindico como una excelente opción para el rezo privado.

Y aunque pueda parecer sorprendente e incluso contradictorio por la distancia que en principio separa el Jasidismo del Reformismo, algunos de los textos y la orientación de algunas de las revisiones en relación al servicio 'tradicional' no reformista podrían perfectamente haber estado inspiradas por un profundo sentido místico de la plegaria.

Esta versión ya no la publica el Movimiento Reformista, sin embargo, se puede encontrar de segunda mano en ebay.com o se puede adquirir nueva en la edición de Kessinger Publishing.


Un consejo: para los que hagan rezo de Minjá diario, que utilicen el Ashrei y el salmo 145 del servicio de Minjá de Shabat y completen con la Amidah de Sajarit de diario.