25 diciembre 2010

1872 Reception of Proselytes

Amazing Conversion Ceremony from David Einhorn's Olat Tamid 'Book of Prayers for Israelitish Congregations'.




22 noviembre 2010

Clase del Rabino Jacques Cukierkorn en directo

El Rabino Jacques Cukierkorn imparte una clase sobre Pirkei Abot en directo en unos días a través de Internet. Puedes seguirla en directo en el siguiente enlace:

02 noviembre 2010

OneShul.org

Un Judaísmo alternativo, conectado con las raíces, nada convencional, nada tradicional e innovador. OneShul.org es una comunidad judía online con servicios religiosos en directo y grabados, escuela talmúdica, que se define como igualitaria, incluyente, no discriminatoria y post-denominacional.

Tomado de su web

Welcome! We’re glad you’re here.

OneShul is your synagogue, family and friends. No matter who you are or where you are in life’s journey, you are a part of this great Jewish community.

We are a global havurah (fellowship), bound together by a love of G-d and our growing Jewish spirituality.

Our shared values and our independence are the bedrock of OneShul. We are egalitarian, inclusive, non-discriminatory, post-denominational and community lead.

The community defines who we are as a shul. A diverse collection of souls from all over the world, we strive for a synagogue of our own, to walk together in Torah, and to make the world a better place.

OneShul is not a building–it’s the world’s first online synagogue. Here you’ll find live and archived daily prayer services, classes, lecture programs, Kabbalat Shabbat, social services (tikkun olam) and more. Help us build the future of the Jewish tradition.

One G-d. One Torah. OneShul…your shul!





31 octubre 2010

La Sinagoga Or Chadash, objetivo de la trama terrorista descubierta

El objetivo del ataque terrorista planeado en Yemen y que afortunadamente fue posible evitar era la Sinagoga Reformista 'Or Chadash' de Chicago. Esta pequeña comunidad centra sus actividades en las necesidades de la comunidad judía gay, lésbica, transexual y bisexual, sus familias, sus amigos y sus seres queridos.

"Congregation Or Chadash is the Chicagoland synagogue serving lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/transsexual Jews, their families, friends and loved ones. Membership is open to everyone." Or Chadash Website


Desde este blog nuestro apoyo y cariño. Un cordial Shalom para los miembros de Or Chadash, Chicago.

11 octubre 2010

Viaje al mundo del Kibbutz

Un reportaje de algo más de 7 minutos de la televisión italiana TG24, en el que se muestra qué es el Kibbutz, cuál es su origen, su ideales primeros, los cambios hacia una vida menos comunitaria y la vuelta, en la crisis actual, al modelo del socialismo real donde la democracia directa, el trabajo manual compartido, la vida comunitaria y la solidaridad son los ejes fundamentales.


04 octubre 2010

Mashiach in Jewish Law


You can read here the book

29 septiembre 2010

Rabbi Wayne Dosick - Shiviti

Rabbi Wayne Dosick - Shiviti from Rand Levin on Vimeo.

------------------------------------------------

Puedes ver un post anterior sobre 'Shiviti' AQUÍ

Can read here a previous post on 'Shiviti' HERE

27 septiembre 2010

Broken and Whole

Why were the broken Tablets preseved in the Holy Ark?

By Tzvi Freeman

And there arose not since a prophet in Israel like Moses, whom G-d knew face to face; [who performed] all the signs and wonders which G-d sent [Moses] to do in the land of Egypt... [who equaled] that mighty hand, those great awesome things, which Moses did before the eyes of all Israel (closing verses of the Five Books of Moses, Deuteronomy 34:10-12)

"That which Moses did before the eyes of all Israel" -- that his heart emboldened him to break the Tablets before their eyes, as it is written, "[I grabbed hold of the two Tablets and threw them from my two hands] and I broke them before your eyes." (Rashi's commentary on verse)

Which is Higher?

Which takes precedence, the Torah or the Jewish people? Are the people only here in order to fulfil the Torah? Or is the Torah only here to reveal the richness of the soul? Or are they an indivisible whole?

When Moses saw the people standing below reveling in their worship of a golden calf, two options lay before him. On the one hand, Torah; on the other, his people. But he could not have both. Because if his people would receive the Torah in the state to which they had descended, they would be destroyed.

Without hesitation, Moses threw down the tablets and saved his people.

Meaning that there is something about these people that is present even when they are committing the gravest sin. Something that makes them more valuable than even the Torah, than G-d's innermost wisdom.

It would seem, then, that the soul is greater than the Torah.

Yet, how do we know that this is so? How do we know the value of any human life? Only because the Torah tells us this story. Without the Torah, we would not know the greatness of the soul and of the people.

So we have two sides of the coin: The soul cannot realize its greatness without the Torah. And the Torah cannot be fathomed to its depths until it is shattered for the sake of the people.

Therefore, the ultimate Torah, as G-d truly wanted it to be received, could only enter once Moses had sacrificed it for his people. Only then came the Torah as it made room for forgiveness, for human input, for that which is beyond the letter of the law. The essential Torah, as it is one with the people who are receiving it.

Breaking Limits

Everything Man is given comes in a finite package. True, the Unknowable, the source of wisdom and blessing, is infinite. But we are not. So, we can only receive wisdom and blessing piece by piece, in parcel form.

Even the tablets Moses carried down from Mount Sinai were defined and bounded. There was a limited set of laws, no more and no less. If you obeyed them, you were good. If not, you were bad. And that was that.

And so, when G-d saw Moses mourning over the broken tablets, He told him, "You have done well by smashing the tablets. For now you will receive a Torah that you may extend wider than the sea."

With the second tablets came the ability for the human mind to extend the Torah within the framework of the Oral Law. As well, there came the possibility that a Jew could fail and yet restore his place with G-d.

So, too, with every failure. In truth, there is only one thing that can put you further ahead than success, and that is failure. When you are successful, you are whole and complete. That is wonderful, but with wholeness you cannot break out beyond your own universe.

When you fail, you are broken. You look at the pieces of yourself lying on the ground and say, "This is worthless. I must go beyond this."

Now you can escape. Now you can grow to join the Infinite. The shell is broken, the shell of a created being. Now you discover that G-d Himself was hidden inside. You discover the Infinite.

The Whole Torah

Why not remain broken? When broken, you can achieve the highest heights. When you are nothing, you can receive everything.

But you are not made only to receive. You must also face the real world and challenge its chutzpah over and over. To do that, you need supreme wholeness, as though you were Adam in the Garden before his fall. You need wholeness, as the second tablets were whole.

Once the people had achieved forgiveness and atonement for their failure, Moses was told to carve a second set of tablets. These were not the work of G-d, as the first ones. Rather, they were the achievement of human work. They were merited through the repentance of the people and the stubborn pleading of Moses. These remained whole.

Living a Paradox

Both the second, whole tablets and the original, broken ones were placed together in the Ark. So too, in the Ark of your heart lie two sets of tablets, one broken and one whole. After all, when you find the Infinite, where will you put it? In your broken vessel? It will not stay. In a new, whole one? It will not fit.

So you allow your heart to feel broken in bitterness for its confines. And yet it is whole in the joy of a boundless soul.

And if you should say, "But it is impossible! It is beyond the capacity of a created being to be both something and nothing at once."

You are right. It is impossible. That is precisely the advantage that Man holds over the angels: Only the human heart can be broken and whole at once. That is why G-d created you. To join heaven and earth. Nothingness and Being. To make the impossible real.

16 septiembre 2010

Nueva versión del Sidur UPB en Español

Gracias a la dedicación y al excelente trabajo de Israel Rocha, Presidente de la comunidad reformista Brit Brajá de México, y a la acertada dirección del Rabino Jacques Cukierkorn podemos ofreceros la versión española casi definitiva del Sidur Union Prayer Book editado en Inglés por la congregación Sinaí de Chicago.

En esta revisión ya aparecen los textos originales en Hebreo y la paginación se ha ajustado al original en Inglés-Hebreo, de tal forma que esta versión en Español ofrezca una experiencia similar a la inglesa.

Sidur en español

Esperamos que apreciéis las mejoras introducidas.

El Sidur se ofrece bajo licencia Creative Commons
Creative Commons License
UPB en español - Edición Sinaí is licensed under a
Creative Commons Reconocimiento-No comercial-Sin obras derivadas 3.0 España License.

Aquellos que lo encuentren de utilidad y quieran contribuir a apoyar los nuevos proyectos en los que trabaja el Rabino Jacques Cukierkorn o a sostener el esfuerzo que realiza la Society for Classical Reform Judaism, pueden realizar una donación en sus respectivas páginas web:

08 septiembre 2010

El significado de Teshuva

Serie de Vídeos sobre la Teshuva

Reb Zusha's Acronym



Y un texto

THE MEANING OF TESHUVA

The central theme of Yom Kippur is teshuva,commonly translated as "repentance." We hear so much about this term, but what, in fact does it truly mean?

On the simplest behavioral level, writes Maimonides, teshuvah involves "returning" to a situation in which one had previously failed, and not making the same mistake a second time. (Laws of Repentance 2:1) It means being given a second chance. No wonder, Yom Kippur has elements of joy. We celebrate being given a second chance. In too many of lifes pursuits, we are given only one shot. If we miss, its all over. On Yom Kippur, God says, "no matter if you have failed before; you can still return."

A chassid once asked his rebbe, "why pray on Yom Kippur, after all, well inevitably sin again." In response, the rebbe asked him to look out the window behind him. Outside was a toddler learning to walk. "What do you see?" asked the master. "A child, standing and falling," replied the disciple. Day after day the chassid returned to witness the same scene. At the weeks end, the child stood and didnt fall. The childs eyes expressed the achievement of having attained the impossible. "So with us," said the rebbe. "We may fail again and again, but in the end, a loving God gives us the opportunities we need to succeed."

The mystics understand teshuvah differently. For them, teshuvah means "returning," to being righteous. But suppose one has never been righteous, what does one return to? Says the Sefat Emet, the soul of every person is fundamentally righteous. There may be a layer of evil obscuring the inner being, but all people created in the image of God are inherently good. Teshuvah then, means to return to the inner kernel of goodness we all possess. And so, we sing, and dance on Yom Kippur. We celebrate the opportunity to discover our true selves.

Another classic story. Reb Zusha was on his death bed, and tears were streaming down his face. "Why are you crying?" asked his disciples. "If God asks me why I wasnt like Moses or Maimonides," answered Reb Zusha, "Ill say, I wasnt blessed with that kind of leadership ability and wisdom." But Im afraid of another question," continued Reb Zusha, "what if God asks, Reb Zusha, why werent you like Reb Zusha? Why didnt you find your inner being and realize your inner potential? Why didnt you find yourself? That is why I am crying."

A third approach. Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel, among many other thinkers, understands teshuvah to mean "answer." That is to say teshuvah is a dialogue. On Yom Kippur we stand before God, a caring God who asks the question(s). We offer the answer(s). A God of love seeks us out. As much as we are in search of Him, He is in search of us. A comforting thought on Yom Kippur.

Yet another chassidic legend. A young girl came to the Baal Shem Tov - the father of chassidism "Why do you cry?" the rebbe lovingly asked. "I was playing hide and seek," said the young girl, "but no one came looking for me." "So, too, is it with God," reflected the Baal Shem Tov. "He, too, is crying. For as much as He is looking for us, we rarely look for Him."


Rabbi Avi Weiss

29 julio 2010

Carta de Najmánides a su hijo

«Escucha, hijo mío, la instrucción de tu padre y no desprecies la enseñanza de tu madre (Prov 1,8).

»Acostúmbrate siempre a expresar todas tus palabras pausadamente, a cualquier hombre y en todo momento. Así te apartarás de la ira, que es una cualidad mala que hacer pecar a los hombres. Como dijeron nuestros maestros, de bendita memoria: A todo iracundo todas las penas del infierno se le impondrán (Nedarim 22a); como está dicho: Aparta la ira de tu corazón y aleja el mal de tu cuerpo. (Ecl. 11,10). Se interpreta que ‘el mal’ es el infierno, como está dicho: E incluso al malvado en el día de la desgracia. (Prov 16,4).

»Cuando te apartes de la ira, recuerda la cualidad de la humildad. Ella es la mejor cualidad de todas las buenas cualidades, como está dicho: Fruto de la humildad es el temor de Adonai. (Prov 22,4) (Avoda Zarah 20b).

»A través de la humildad, recuerda la cualidad del temor, pues te hace reflexionar constantemente: de dónde vienes y hacia dónde vas. Pues tú ‘elevarás hasta tu corazón’ eres un gusano y una lombriz en tu vida y en tu muerte. Y ¿ante quién serás juzgado y darás cuenta? Ante el Rey Todopoderoso (Pirke Avot 3,1).

Como está dicho: He aquí que los cielos, y los cielos de los cielos no te pueden contener (II Cr 6,18), menos aun el corazón de los hijos de los hombres (Prov 15,11). Está dicho: ¿Por ventura los cielos y la tierra no lleno Yo, oráculo de Adonai. (Je 23,24).

»Cuando pienses en todo esto temerás a tu Creador, te guardarás del pecado y con esas cualidades vivirás feliz con lo que tienes. Cuando te afiances en la cualidad de la humildad, hasta sentirte inferior a cualquier persona y te atemorices de Él y del pecado; entonces reinará sobre ti el espíritu de la Presencia Divina y el brillo de su Gloria en la vida del Mundo Futuro.

»Y ahora hijo mío, ten presente, que el que se enorgullece de sí mismo, por encima de la humanidad, es soberbio en el Reino de los Cielos, porque se jacta con el ropaje del reino de los Cielos. Como está dicho: Adonai reinó, orgullo vistió (Sal 93,1).

»¿Pero con qué puede enorgullecerse el hombre? Si con la riqueza: Adonai empobrece y enriquece (I Sam 2,7). Si con el honor ¿acaso no procede de D-s? Como está dicho: La riqueza y el honor de Ti proceden (I Crónica 29,12). ¿Cómo se habrá de cubrir con un honor del Hacedor? Si se cubre con inteligencia: Quita el habla a los más expertos, el discernimiento de los ancianos arrebata (Job 12,20).

Encontramos que todos son idénticos ante D-s, porque con su cólera abate a los erguidos y con su voluntad levanta a los caídos. Por eso debes caer por ti mismo y te levantará D-s.

»Por lo tanto te explicaré cómo has de comportarte en la cualidad de la humildad, para marchar en ella siempre: Todas tus palabras serán reposadas, que tu cabeza esté gacha y tus ojos miren hacia abajo, hacia la tierra, pero tu corazón hacia arriba. No mires a la cara de nadie cuando te hable. Que cualquier hombre sea más grande que tú a tus ojos. Si es inteligente o si es rico, hónralo. Si él es pobre y tú rico, o más sabio que él, considera que tú eres deudor suyo y él acreedor tuyo, pues si él peca es pecador involuntario y tú lo eres voluntario.

»En todas tus palabras, tus actos, tus pensamientos y en todo momento, considera que estás frente al Santo, bendito sea, y que su Presencia Divina está sobre ti, porque su Gloria llena todo el universo.

Tus palabras serán dichas con temor y pavor, como un esclavo ante su amo.

»Te sentirás inferior a cualquier persona. Si te llamara alguien, no respondas en voz alta, más bien con suavidad, como el que está ante su maestro.

»Siempre has de estar presto a leer la Torá, para que puedas cumplirla. Cuanto aprendas del Libro, investiga en los que has aprendido a fin de si hay en él una palabra que la puedas cumplir. Controla tus actos, en la mañana y en la tarde: Así toda tu vida será arrepentimiento.

»Apartarás todo asunto mundano de tu corazón en el momento de la oración. Así ha de estar tu corazón ante el Lugar, bendito sea. Purifica tu pensamiento y medita cada palabra antes de que salga de tu boca.

»Así harás durante todos los días de tu efímera vida, con cada una de toda palabra, y no pecarás. Con ello tus palabras, tus actos y tus pensamientos serán rectos.

Tu Oración será pura, selecta, limpia y precisa, y será aceptada ante el Señor, bendito sea, como está dicho: Aprestarás sus corazones y atenderás tus oídos. (Sal 10,17).

»Lee esta carta una vez a la semana y no dejes de cumplirla, para preservarla y marchar con ella siempre tras el Nombre, te bendecirá, a fin de que tengas éxito en todos tus caminos y seas recordado en el Mundo Futuro reservado a los justos. Y cada día que la leas se te responderá desde los Cielos a cuanto ansíe tu corazón pedir, eternamente. Amén. Selah.»

................................................

Najmánides, 1267

Rabbi Waskow y Jewish Renewal

From the Shalom Center

At the heart of JEWISH RENEWAL is a renewed encounter between God and the Jewish people, and an understanding of Jewish history as a series of renewed encounters with God. These encounters have followed painful crises during which God has been eclipsed; yet each crisis has resulted in the emergence of a more or less deeply transformed, renewed, and joyful version of Judaism.

In our generation, Jewish renewal is the increasingly joyful, renewing, and transforming response of Jews to the crisis of the Holocaust and the triumph of Modernity in both its creative and destructive aspects.

Through prayer, study, and action, Jewish renewal seeks —

  • to nurture the rebbe-spark (that is, the creative energy and leadership that comes from direct contact with the Divine) in everyone, without fearing its emergence in different ways and degrees at different moments in different people;
  • to nurture communities that dance and wrestle with God, that are intimate, participatory, and egalitarian, and that create a "field of rebbetude" — shared openness to spiritual experience;
  • and to assist the spiritual growth and healing of individuals, communities, whole societies, and the planet.

JEWISH RENEWAL IS ROOTED IN A MIDRASHIC RESPONSE TO TORAH, DRAWING ON ANCIENT WISDOM WITHOUT GETTING STUCK IN IT — particularly on the wisdom of Kabbalah and Hassidism as well as the Prophets and Rabbis, infusing these with the insights of contemporary ecology, feminism, and participatory democracy.

Central to the emerging vocabulary of many (but not all) participants in Jewish renewal has been a renewed understanding of the Kabbalistic/Hassidic teachings of the Four Worlds of Atzilut (Being, Spirit), Briyyah (Knowing, Intellect), Yetzirah (Relating, Emotion), and Asiyah (Doing, Action), and of the S'phirot — all understood not only as aspects of the Divine but also as aspects of "embodied" human expression.

In Jewish renewal,

  • women and men are fully equal & participatory in shaping the future of Judaism;
  • those who have often been marginalized in Jewish life (such as gay men and lesbians, converts, those who are new to the study of Torah and the process of prayer) are welcomed and honored;
  • there is respect for and often learning from other spiritual paths (e.g. Buddhism, Sufism, etc),
  • people seek to heal the earth and society;
  • chant, meditation, dance, the graphic arts, and "drushodrama" are encouraged alongside more widely known forms of davvening and learning and daily practice as ways of connecting with God & Torah;
  • people desire to **embody** wisdom rather than etherealizing or intellectualizing it;
  • people sense God as suffusing the world with Divinity.

Jewish renewal is "maximalist" about Judaism — that is, applies Judaism in many down-to-earth life-dimensions (food, money, sex, health, politics, etc.) as well as to prayer, festivals, and Torah-study.

Many Jewish-renewal participants think we are entering/ creating a profoundly different period of Jewish life, as different from Rabbinic Judaism as Rabbinic Judaism was/ is from Biblical Judaism. This view is based on the sense that Modernity has challenged Rabbinic Judaism as profoundly as Hellenism challenged Biblical Judaism, and that this challenge demands as profound a transformative response.

Indeed, some feel that this challenge is not a mere accident of history but part of the emerging presence of the Divine in the universe. For this reason, many practitioners of Jewish renewal sense that God is calling on us to move away from old ways of connecting with God as King and Judge, toward metaphors that are much more intimate — Breath of Life, for example — and toward a whole new paradigm of Jewish life in all its dimensions:

  • New words of prayer, and more embodied forms of prayer;
  • New ethics for sexuality;
  • New "eco-kosher" practices to help heal the wounded earth;
  • New efforts toward mutual respect between the Jewish people and other peoples and paths, in the world at large and in the Land of Israel;
  • New efforts to carry Jewish wisdom into the public sphere.

Both Jewish renewal and what might be called "Jewish restoration" (the baal tshuvah movement, etc.) are critical of many aspects of Modernity — particularly the Modern urge to constrict religious expression, to shatter communities, and to conquer the earth.

Jewish renewal differs from "Jewish restoration" in trying to absorb into Torah the Divine truths embodied in some aspects of Modernity — such as the equality of women and a peaceful contact with Buddhism, feminist spirituality, and eco-philosophy — and go forward, rather than reject as much as possible of Modernity and return to the past.

27 julio 2010

10 principios para vivir una vida de integridad


Minyan: ten principles for living a life of integrity, por el Rabino Rami Shapiro.

El Rabino Rami Shapiro dice que no es un judío jasídico. Se define a sí mismo como un judío liberal, postdenominacional, que se siente atraído por la riqueza de las enseñanzas jasídicas, pero sin por ello estar obligado por la práctica jasídica. Obtuvo el Rabinato en el Hebrew Union College, el seminario del movimiento reformista. Tal como dice de sí mismo: 'soy un judío que busca a Dios - no como idea abstracta, sino como una realidad palpable'.

El objetivo de su libro, tal como él mismo lo presenta, es el de despertar a cada lector a un Dios que se presenta como origen y sustrato último de toda realidad. Y para ello propone 'Minyan', una senda, un camino por medio del cual vivir la vida , el día a día, de forma espiritual, a través de diez disciplinas espirituales - hanhagot - que han sido practicadas por los judíos durante siglos.

El punto de partida de la obra es situar al lector en el marco de referencia 'teológico' en el que se mueve: el Judaísmo no-dualista, que afirma que 'no existe una real separación entre Dios y la creación. Sino que, por el contrario, la creación es una manifestación de Dios, la única fuente y sustrato de todo lo que existe'. Hace un recorrido por la tradición para presentar otros Rabanim que ya entendieron también el Judaísmo como no-dual, dedicando especial atención a la Kabalá y el Jasidismo, sobre todo el de Jabad.

El núcleo de la obra se centra en la justificación y explicación de cada una de esas disciplinas: meditación para conseguir la auto-nulificación (avodah be-bitul); repetición de una frase a semejanza de los mantras budistas (que en la tradición kabalista y jasídica reciben el nombre de gerushin); lectura recursiva de textos éticos (musar); fijación de la atención (kavanah), generosidad - quizá mejor justicia - (tzedakah), actos de bondad( guemilut chasadim); interpretación de los sueños (pitron chalomot) - que ya aparece en el siglo XV entre los kabalistas como forma de acceso a los conflictos que desgarran la realidad personal, casi cinco siglos antes de que Freud los convirtiera en uno de los elementos fundamentales de la terapia psicoanalítica-; consumo ético (eco-kashrut); auto-perfeccionamiento -retorno- (teshuvah), y el Sábado (shabat)

Pero no olvida resaltar uno de los principales valores de la tradición, la comunidad, y a ello dedica el último capítulo de la obra. Si bien la obra se centra en prácticas que ha de llevar a cabo cada uno, para el autor es mejor que todo ello se realice en el ambiente de hermandad de la comunidad, donde uno no permanece aislado, donde uno no se convierte en una isla que existe al margen del otro, del prójimo. Y propone la creación de una javurá donde espíritus afines pueden encontrarse para llevar a cabo estas hanhagot.

En el epílogo, Rami Shapiro explica por qué es judío, por qué se siente judío, al tiempo que plantea que el Judaísmo no es la única forma de alcanzar la experiencia de Dios, pero sí la que a él le facilita el camino.

Es uno de esos libros que uno debe leer y volver a leer, hasta que las prácticas queden asentadas en lo más profundo y se conviertan en una segunda naturaleza. Además está escrito con secillez, con erudición y con sentido práctico.

15 julio 2010

Retransmisión de Sajarit de Shabat

La comunidad reformista de Glasgow retransmite a través de Ustream los servicios religiosos de la mañana de Sábado y los deja grabados para poder ser escuchados más tarde.





El Siddur que utilizan es el excelente Seder HaTefilot - del que ya hablamos en este blog -, editado por el movimiento reformista en el Reino Unido.

Es quizá el más 'consevador' de los Siddurim reformistas que conozco. Desde mi punto de vista, ofrece una presentación hermosa con un diseño de página excelente y con unos buenos gráficos, comentarios a pide de página que explican el sentido y el porqué de la inclusión de los textos, incluye hebreo, inglés y transcripción, muy completo y con unos textos en inglés muy bien resueltos - al contrario de lo que sucede con el nuevo del movimiento reformista en EE.UU.

El Siddur puede adquirirse en esta página del movimiento reformista:

Y aquí podéis ver algunas de las ilsutraciones del Siddur.

14 julio 2010

¿Gandhi o Moshe?

Por Dov Greenberg

Tomado de es.Chabad.org

La Biblia relata sólo tres incidentes en la vida de Moshé antes que Di-s lo escogiera como líder y profeta

1) En su juventud, Moshé "salió hasta sus hermanos y vio a un capataz egipcio que golpeaba brutalmente a un hebreo. Él mató al capataz, enterrándolo en la arena" (Éxodo 2:11-12)

2) Al otro día, Moshé trata de traer paz entre dos hebreos que estaban peleando, pero el agresor indignado dice: "¿Quién te puso como príncipe y líder sobre nosotros? ¿Quieres matarme como mataste al egipcio?" Comprendiendo que su intervención del día anterior ya se había conocido, Moshé se escapa de Egipto y se refugia en Midián (Ibíd. 13-15)

3) En Midián, Moshé probablemente no quiere nada más que paz y tranquilidad. En cambio, se encuentra involucrado en otro conflicto. Observa que los pastores locales intimidaban a un grupo de muchachas que estaban primeras en la línea del pozo de agua. Él sale inmediatamente en su defensa, expulsando a los agresores (Ibíd. 17)

Éstos son los únicos episodios en los que la Torá habla explícitamente de Moshé (además de las circunstancias de su nacimiento) previo a su elección por Di-s como líder. Ellos expresan un paradigma indispensable al liderazgo: Un líder debe tener el valor para combatir la injusticia dondequiera que exista. En los tres casos, Moshé está profundamente comprometido en la lucha contra la injusticia. Interviene cuando un no-judío oprime a un judío, cuando dos judíos pelean, y cuando hombres no-judíos oprimen a mujeres no-judías.

Cuando es necesario matar, está dispuesto a hacerlo. Cuando basta con hablar, está listo para el reproche verbal; cuando es necesario luchar, está preparado para luchar. Quien rechaza la opción de agresión debido a un sentido de compasión puede ser un ser humano amable, pero es un líder totalmente inadecuado, porque la violencia resultante a largo plazo por el fracaso de combatir al mal es mucho peor que la violencia de la lucha misma.

En términos modernos, Moshé es políticamente incorrecto. No le habla al capataz egipcio sobre "el ciclo de la violencia" o le da una lección de "re direccionamiento de la ira". Moshé sabe que cuando complete su conferencia, el hebreo puede estar muerto. Es consciente que a veces, la violencia es una moral, aunque difícil, opción. Salva la vida del inocente.

El prohibir la matanza moral, garantiza la matanza inmoral. Es la "violencia" usada por el policía que detiene a los delincuentes violentos de asesinar y dañar a personas inocentes. Hay muchos hombres y mujeres inocentes vivos hoy simplemente porque alguien usó violencia para salvar sus vidas. Si alguien hubiera matado a los secuestradores del "11 de Septiembre" antes de que tomaran a la fuerza los aviones, se habrían salvado miles de vidas.

El consejo de Gandhi

A lo largo de la historia, muchos escogieron no emular el ejemplo de Moshé. Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, por ejemplo, cuando los Nazis intentaban tomar Inglaterra, Mahatma Gandhi (2 de octubre de 1869– 30 de enero 1948) ofreció al pueblo británico el siguiente consejo:

"Me gustaría que bajen los brazos, tienen que saber que es inútil salvarse o salvar a la humanidad. Deben invitar a Herr Hitler y al Signor Mussolini a tomar lo que quieran de los países que ustedes llaman sus posesiones. Permítanles tomar posesión. Si estos señores escogen ocupar sus casas, ustedes las dejarán vacantes. Si ellos no les otorgan libre escapatoria, deben permitir -hombres, mujeres y niños- que los maten, pero negándose a deberles obediencia"

A los judíos de Alemania Gandhi envió un mensaje similar:

"Estoy convencido, mientras dicto estas palabras, que el corazón alemán más cruel se fundirá [si sólo los judíos] adoptan la no-violencia activa. La naturaleza humana... incansablemente responde a las muestras de amor. No pierdo la esperanza en que él [Hitler] responderá al sufrimiento humano, aun el causado por él".

Si Gandhi hubiese convencido a los ingleses a bajar sus brazos y a practicar la no-violencia, el pueblo judío habría sido aniquilados, la democracia y los derechos humanos habrían desaparecido y el mundo se habría sumergido en una nueva Edad Oscura de crueldad inimaginable. La guerra, aunque siempre es infortunada y dolorosa, no siempre es mala; a veces, una guerra es la cosa más moral para hacer

Increíblemente, la nación que Moshé creó, Israel, tiene, en los recientes años, émulos de Gandhi en lugar de Moshé. Con los acuerdos de Oslo, invitamos a nuestros enemigos a tomar partes de nuestra patria en la creencia que ellos a cambio nos darán paz y buena voluntad. En lugar de declarar la guerra justa contra los terroristas y su infraestructura, escogimos practicar la moderación y la diplomacia no-violenta. Muchos de nosotros creímos entonces, y muchos judíos todavía creen, que el corazón terrorista más duro se fundirá en contestación a nuestras propuestas pacíficas.

¿Guerra, Deshonor o los dos?

En 1938, el Primer Ministro británico Chamberlain apaciguó a Adolf Hitler, permitiéndole al Führer ocupar el Sudetenland por una promesa de paz. Chamberlain volvió a Inglaterra y anunció que había traído "La paz en nuestro tiempo". Winston Churchill denunció que era un apaciguador ingenuo que creyó poder comprar la buena voluntad de Hitler, cediendo ante sus inmorales demandas. "Se le ha dado a usted opción entre la guerra y el deshonor. Usted escogió el deshonor y tendrá guerra".

Tristemente, lo mismo ha sucedido con Israel. Abandonando partes de nuestra patria, Israel escogió el deshonor. A cambio, Israel recibió la guerra. El apaciguamiento es suicida para el inocente y asegura la victoria del mal.

Los profetas de Israel fueron los primeros en concebir la paz como un ideal. Isaías dio la voz a las grandes palabras grabadas en la imaginación de occidente:

"Ninguna nación alzará la espada contra otra Nación; ni aprenderán más guerra".

Pero la manera de acelerar la visión de Isaías es luchar contra el mal. El uso de la violencia moral siempre debe ser el último recurso. Pero cuando todos los otros esfuerzos fallan, el poder del justo es la única respuesta a la violencia inmoral.

28 junio 2010

Hilelismo, Reconstruccionism avant la lettre

But Zamenhof felt that the cause of human unity (he rarely used the word “universal”) was itself a Jewish cause; in fact, it was the mission to which God had dedicated the Jewish people. By 1901, he had named his cause Hilelismo, a choice that was at once naïve and revolutionary. He was naïve to think that a movement named for a first-century BCE Jewish rabbi would be received as anything but a Jewish affair. But Zamenhof needed Hillel in order to supersede, in one grand gesture, both Moses and Jesus. With Hillel, Zamenhof shifted the focus of Judaism from law to ethics, taking Hillel’s famous dictum – “Do not do unto others what is hateful to you” – as the epitome of Judaism. Like Felix Adler, founder of the Ethical Culture movement, he was trying to cast religion as a way of living ethically; like Mordechai Kaplan, the founder of Reconstructionism, he was trying to infuse Jewish spirituality with Haskalah ideals. At the same time, staking his vision on Hillel challenged the Christian monopoly on the “golden rule,” Jesus’s positive reformulation of Hillel’s dictum in his Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 7:12).

Under the pseudonym Homo Sum (“I am a man”), Zamenhof floated a “trial balloon” of Hillelism in 1901 in a Russian Jewish magazine. It did not get far: “I could not find a single person willing to help me in organizing such a sect as I contemplated.” Interviewed by The Jewish Chronicle in 1907, Zamenhof said that he’d intended to “call together a Jewish Congress and found a sect of Jews professing clearly defined philosophical principles.” The Russian Jewish Hillelists would preserve Jewish “customs and ceremonials, feasts and fasts; not, however, as laws, but as traditions.” Insofar as halacha was to be regarded not as binding laws but as cherished “folkways,” this was Reconstruction avant la lettre.

The bloody events of the revolutionary year 1905 renewed Zamenhof’s determination to press forward. Emboldened by the warm reception he had recently received at the First Esperanto Congress in Boulogne, he tried again, this time with an appeal to all Esperantists. In January 1906, a fictitious “Circle of Hillelists” issued The Dogmas of Hillelism, a twelve-point credo that reads like a cross between the “Rights of Man and the Citizen” and Maimonides’ “Ani Ma’amin.” Hillelists were entitled to their chosen or inherited religions, but vowed to reject any elements that failed to meet the severe ethical standards of Hillelism, such as nationalistic ideals; national, racial, and religious chauvinism; and doctrines offensive to one’s reason. In short, it was to be a sort of ethical quality control of religion. Hillelists would someday convene in Hillelist temples with Hillelist religious school and Hillelist programs for the elderly. And the language of Hillelism, of course, was to be Esperanto. The goal was a quiet, gradual transformation, “little by little, unremarked and without any disruption.”

Before the year was out, Zamenhof lightly revised the declaration, changing the movement’s name to Homaranismo (Humanitarianism). He was, in part, pandering to non-Jewish Esperantists, recasting a movement grounded in Jewish ethics as a “philosophically pure monotheism.” But Homaranismo required Zamenhof to come clean on what he meant by monotheism. God, he wrote in a richly ambiguous statement, was “a united ideal for all Humanity.” Zamenhof hoped that Esperanto would eventually unite humanity in a belief in God, but he was also suggesting that God was defined by the unity of human beings. Esperanto was to do the Jewish work of saving the world, soul by speaking soul.

From 'Esperanto - A Jewish Story', by Esther Schor

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And here You have both booklets by Zamenhof

http://homarano.narod.ru/Windows/hilel_e.htm

http://homarano.narod.ru/Unikodo/homar_e.htm

27 junio 2010

Siddur de 1887

Order of prayers and responsive readings for Jewish worship (1887)


31 mayo 2010

Israel needs national inquiry into deadly Gaza flotilla clashes

Haaretz.com

There is no other fitting or proper way to clarify the circumstances of the incident, which began as an act of protest and ended with dead demonstrators and a grave international crisis.

By Aluf Benn

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu must return immediately from North America and convene a national committee of inquiry into Israel's interception of a Gaza aid convoy on Monday, during which at least nine activists were killed.

There is no other fitting or proper way to clarify the circumstances of the incident, which began as an act of protest and ended with dead demonstrators and a grave international crisis.

The government failed the test of results; blaming the organizers of the flotilla for causing the deaths by ignoring Israel's orders to turn back is inadequate. Decisions taken by the responsible authorities must be probed.

Nor can Monday's bloodshed be dismissed with claims that the demonstrators attacked IDF commandos with guns and other weapons. This type of excuse shifts responsibility from the political and military decision-makers to the soldiers, who acted in the heat of combat and for fear of their lives. It may be convenient to Netanyahu and his partners in government to present the battle as a local incident that escalated – but they cannot escape responsibility for the crisis.

This time, no one can put the debacle down to inexperience. Netanayhu's predecessor, Ehud Olmert, and his defense minister, Amir Peretz – both military novices – came to grief in Lebanon in 2006 with that excuse.

The acting prime minister, Moshe Yaalon, and the defense minister, Ehud Barak, are both former chiefs of staff. Between them they have near matchless experience of military planning and combat.

Netanyahu may have been their junior during his service with the elite commando unit, Sayeret Matkal – but has a formidable record of handling intelligence and operations. They could, if pushed, have foreseen the consequences of Monday's action.

A committee of inquiry would have to answer several salient questions:

Tactics. What prompted the decision to stop the flotilla by force - what course of action was presented to the politicians who made the decision and what analysis was made of the consequences of using live fire in any confrontation?

Were there any dissenting views, was there anyone how pointed to the inevitable damage to Israel from any operational failure? What steps were taken to forestall an escalation?

Alternatives. Was any effort made to stop the flotilla through diplomacy, or through negotiation and compromise with its organizers? Or did the government rush headlong into a confrontation, without any thought for the alternatives? Was there anyone who advocated letting the boats through to Gaza, rather than making them a test of Israel's sovereignty and might?

Turkey. What has the government done in the past year to improve ties with a strategically crucial neighbor? How has the prime minister worked to redress the damage to relations with Ankara?

The siege of Gaza. What is the purpose of the siege? Is it just an automatic extension of the previous government's policy, or does it have some practical aim? How much has the usefulness of the policy been discussed during the current government's year in office?

It is clear that public opinion is broadly in favor of punishing Gaza for the continuing captivity of Israel Defense Forces soldier Gilad Shalit. But the government needs to think about what advantage effect this has on the national interest – and not just on its popularity in weekly opinion polls. Did any of this happen?

Israel's Arab minority. Yisrael Beiteinu's "loyalty" campaign, an attempt by Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman's right-wing party to enforce laws to stamp down expressions of nationalism by Israeli Arabs, has been followed by the arrest of Arab activists charged with spying for Hezbollah. What effect will this have had on the fierceness of Israel-Arab protest? Did the government consider deepening its ties with the Arab minority? Will it act now, after leading Israeli Arab took part in the flotilla and suspected injuries to the head of the Islamic Movement's northern branch, Raed Salah, aboard one of the protest boats? Have representations been made to Arab community leaders in an effort to forestall internal conflict?

All are weighty issues that demand deep scrutiny by an independent body, which must lay its findings before the international community. Only a national committee of inquiry can meet this need and ameliorate the heavy criticism Israel will face for killing demonstrators.

Comunicado de B'Tselem

31 May '10: Open an immediate investigation into the action to gain control of the flotilla to Gaza

B’Tselem demands that an immediate, independent and effective investigation be made into the circumstances of the military action taken to gain control of the ships, which led to the death and injury of dozens of activists. The investigation must be conducted by non-military officials.

Among the issues to be investigated are whether the army used proportionate force, whether the forces were trained to cope with this type of event, were they equipped with the correct means, what open-fire regulations were given to the soldiers, and whether alternative options were considered.

The IDF Spokesperson claims that extreme violence was used against the soldiers by activists on the boat. This information is based solely on statements of soldiers. However, before reaching conclusions, the investigation must consider the testimonies of all eyewitnesses to the events, including persons who participated in the flotilla who are currently in custody in Israel.

http://www.btselem.org/English/Press_Releases/20100531.asp

30 mayo 2010

Los profetas, reivindicados

Podría decirse que es en los Profetas donde el Neojasidismo -Jewish Renewal- y El Judaísmo Reformista, sobre todo el Clásico, tienen su punto de encuentro. Este libro que se inscribe claramente el el primero puede ser de ayuda para que el segundo recupere un discurso que reclame con vigor el legado de los profetas. Ciertamente desde perspectivas teológicas diferentes: el Jewish Renewal con su defensa del Judaísmo místico no dualista; el Judaísmo Reformista Clásico con su énfasis en un enfoque racionalista. Y ambos mostrando la necesidad de traer de nuevo los profetas y su mensaje al centro de debate de la tradición judía que se hace hoy, ahora, pero sobre todo acercando nuevamente su mensaje a la mente y al corazón humanos, para que nos oriente en la sagrada misión del Tikkun Olam.


The Hebrew Prophets, por el Rabino Rami Shapiro
"When the prophet speaks to you ..."




27 mayo 2010

Siddur 'Union Prayer Book' Hebreo-Español

¡¡Importante!! En este enlace tienes la última entrada en este blog sobre el Sidur UPB en Español
http://www.javura-iesod.org/2010/09/nueva-version-del-sidur-upb-en-espanol.html

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Gracias a la labora encomiable de Israel Rocha, Presidente de la comunidad Brit Brajá, ya disponemos de la versión del Sidur 'Union Prayer Book' con los textos en Hebreo y la transcripción fonética de los mismos.

Sidur en español

En los próximos días publicaremos también la revisión de la versión reducida y le añadiremos los textos en Hebreo y la fonética.

Para más información sobre el proyecto, visita este post previo

23 mayo 2010

A New Judaism for a New Millennium

And so friends, we are at a major crossroads in Jewish history... one with profound challenges and limitless possibilities... calling for courage, creativity and vision, no less than at the other critical turning points in the 5000 year epoch of our People's past! The challenge of survival, and the promise of renewal and renaissance, that this new millennium holds for Judaism and the Jewish People, calls for nothing less than revolutionary, radical responses… nothing less than the courageous transformation of our Jewish community!

We must redeem our Faith and our People from a predominately, social and culturally defined, Israel-centered, Holocaust-obsessed remnant, into a post-ethnic, universally-visioned spiritual force! We must reclaim a religious community that cherishes, but is not dominated — nor drained of its own integrity and resources — by its special relationship to our brothers and sisters the land of Israel. We must, in this new century, be a community that forever remembers with reverence the precious martyrs and moral lessons of the Shoah, but is prepared to renew itself and move on, to focus on the future. We must move beyond the facile and shallow substitutes of "Jewishness" to reclaim our vision as a religious community, defined and experienced by our timeless, transcendent ideals — our search for the encounter with God... our commitment to working for justice and peace in human society... and our study of Torah that will empower us to seek the life-transforming resources of meaning, comfort, wisdom, guidance and inspiration that our tradition offers for our daily lives...

Yes... this may well sound radical... and there is no question that much of this would be considered shocking heresy by the mainstream Jewish establishment. And yet, this is what Radical-Classical Reform has always taught that Judaism in America should be. And this is what Jewish life, energies, resources, and education, must all become about, once again... not the desperate, cheap substitutes we offer to our justifiably alienated kids... GOD and TORAH... ETHICAL VALUES and LOVINGKINDESS... THE STRUGGLE FOR JUSTICE AND PEACE... not multimillion dollar JCC's with pools and health clubs and pottery workshops... FAITH and LEARNING... and not the illusion that an obscenely elaborate Bar Mitzvah celebration... or a summer on a kibbutz... or the exploitation of the Holocaust as a guilt tactic... are panaceas to ensure Jewish loyalty and commitment among our young people — now or in the future.

Only if we reclaim that historic Radical-Reform vision of a vital Jewish spiritual renewal... only if we have the confidence in Judaism's universal message, the willingness to rededicate ourselves to those ideals, and the courage to proclaim and share them with others — only then can we even dare to hope that a century from tonight — on the Eve of Rosh Hashanah, in the year 2100 — that anymore than a small remnant of our descendents — clinging to an ever-dimming memory — will be gathered in a handful of surviving synagogues to usher in a New Year...

20 mayo 2010

Women of the Wall

19 mayo 2010

No Religious Freedom in Israel ... for non-Orthodox Jews

When It Comes to Religious Freedom, for Non-Orthodox Jews, Israel Is Not the Western-Style Democracy It Claims to Be

Allan C. Brownfeld, Editor
Special Interest Report
April 2010

Israel presents itself, and is presented by its most fervent admirers, as the Middle East’s only Western-style democracy.

When it comes to the question of religious freedom, however, a far different picture emerges. Christians are free to be Christians, and Muslims may be Muslims.
For non-Orthodox Jews, Israel provides hardly any religious freedom at all. Reform and Conservative rabbis cannot perform weddings or funerals. Their conversions are not recognized as legitimate. Indeed, Israel is a theocracy — with a very narrow, Orthodox Judaism recognized as the official state religion.

“There is no question that we haven’t managed to untie this unholy bond between religion and state,” declares Rabbi Maya Leibovitch, the spiritual leader of Reform Congregation Kehilat Mevasseret Zion in Jerusalem, explaining that the bond between Orthodoxy and the government has only tightened since the early 1990s. (Washington Jewish Week, Nov. 26, 2009)

Israeli members of Reform and Conservative Judaism, explained Rabbi Leibovitch, continue to wage an uphill battle to gain equal footing with the Orthodox. “I feel ashamed that the only place where you cannot choose your rabbi and congregation,” she declares, “is in Israel.”

At a seminar in March 2010 presented by the Gildenhorn Institute for Jewish Studies at the University of Maryland,
Conservative Rabbi Tamar Elad-Appelbaum, declared that Israel “is the only place in the democratic world where Jews have to fight for their own freedom of religion.” (Washington Jewish Week, March 11, 2010)

When it comes to r
eligious conversions, the Israeli government rejects not only non-Orthodox conversions, but even conversions performed by Orthodox rabbis in other countries. Consider the case of Ilana, who has been living a double life in Israel. Though her first visit was as a Catholic she moved to Israel in 2006 following her conversion to Judaism in Italy. Although the Orthodox Chief Rabbinate certifies her conversion, the civil organs of the state of Israel continue to deny her basic rights as a citizen.

Rabbis Ed Rettig, acting director of the American Jewish Committee’s Israel office, and Seth Farber, founder and director of Itim, the Jewish Life Information Center, report: “Ilana lives without medical insurance, is unable to work and has been waiting more than two years for her case for citizenship to make it to the Supreme Court. In every other Jewish community in the world, Ilana is Jewish. Not in Israel ... Civil bureaucrats are seeking to impose their will and standards on Diaspora Jewry.”

When it comes to
religious freedom for women, Israel has embraced a narrow, male-centered approach which denies women such basic rights as public prayer at Jerusalem’s Western Wall, Judaism’s most holy site.

On Nov. 18, 2009, a 25-year-old medical student, Nofrat Frenkel, was arrested as the group Women of The Wall (WOTW) prayed just inside the women’s section of the Wall. WOTW, whose members are a mix of Reform, Conservative and Modern Orthodox — read the Torah with head-coverings, prayer shawls and phylacteries.

In January, Anat Hoffman chair of WOTW was summoned to a Jerusalem police station for ques-tioning. The International Jerusalem Post (Feb. 19-26, 2010) reported: “Ultra-Orthodox men hurled epithets at a gathering of WOTW on Feb. 15, screaming ‘Nazis’ and ‘You Caused The Holocaust’ as the 200 or so mostly female worshipers took part in the group’s monthly prayer vigil.”

American Jewish groups demand complete separation of church and state in the U.S., yetthey support a theocracy in Israel. Do they believe in religious freedom as a matter of principle, or only in societies where Jews are in a minority? This is a question more and more non-Orthodox Jews are asking.


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