23 abril 2011


What is the Jewish view of dreams? Dreams have always agitated and fascinated people. Indeed, the study of dreams goes back to ancient times. The question that has always existed is whether dreams have any significance?
According to Sigmund Freud in his book The Interpretation of Dream (Published 1900) he claims that all details of a dream even the most ridiculous of them have significance. In his view, dreams represent the subconscious, which the person usually suppresses due to social prohibitions. During waking hours, logical tendencies predominate, not allowing instinctive desires to be expressed and satisfied. According to Freud, these desires are primarily sexual.
Though Freud’s theories have been rejected, psychiatrists and psychoanalysts do not contradict the fact that dreams are important and have significance. According to psychoanalysts such as Adler and Jung dreams are important and express other contents, such as aggressive tendencies or various personal desires.
However, according to psychiatrists F. Crick and G. Mitchison (Nature 304:111, 1983) the content of dreams do not have any significance. The main purpose of dreams is in order to forget some learned material, thereby producing “cleanliness of the head” and to liberate brain energy to gather other and varied material.
According to all the opinions above, they do not suggest that dreams need to be interpreted. They are rather just reflective of ones hidden desires or the activity of ones memory, which appears in the form of a dream.
In Judaism, however, there is considerable amount of literature on dreams, which seem to reflect a totally different view. In Jewish thought dreams not only have significance but they can be even out-of-body experiences receiving important messages to the person.
The book of Genesis is scattered with dreams of the Patriarchs and others. The first dream is (28:12), Jacob dreamt of a ladder standing on the ground with its head in the heaven and angels ascending and descending. This was a message to Jacob that there will be new angels accompanying him during his journey to Charan replacing the angels who accompanied him in Israel (Rashi). Similarly, the dream of Joseph and the eleven stars (37:5) were a message that Joseph would in the future reign over his brothers in Egypt.
This view of dreams reflects a different approach to that of psychologists and psychoanalysts; dreams need to be sometimes interpreted as they might have meaningful messages relating to the person, someone else or occurrences in the world.
What is the nature of these dreams and how are they interpreted? The Talmud (Berachos 55b) states that the realization of all dreams follows the mouth, i.e. the import of a dream depends upon the interpretation given to it. Indeed, R’ Bana’ah says that there were twenty-four interpreter of dreams residing in Jerusalem. Now, he says, once I dreamt a dream and I went to each of them to ask for its interpretation. And that which this one interpreted to me was not the same as that which the other one interpreted to me; rather, I received twenty-four interpretations for the same dream. Yet, all of these interpretations were realized for me, as indeed, each predicted event in fact materialized.
According to this statement of the Talmud there is no such thing as a negative or positive dream. If a dream is interpreted positively it becomes a positive dream and if interpreted negatively it becomes a negative dream. Theoretically, a dream can be negative and positive at the same time, depending on its interpretation.
However, this view is contradicted by the bulk of Talmudic literature related to dreams. The Talmud (Berachos 55b) states, Rav Chisda said, ‘a positive dream’ is not destined to be fulfilled in its entirety nor is a ‘negative dream’. This is derived from the fact that Joseph saw in his dream, in addition to the eleven stars, the sun and the moon, reflecting his two parents, Jacob and Rachel, who would also become subservient to him. This is despite the fact that Rachel, his mother, passed away before the dream was realized years later in Egypt.
However, this statement, referring to dreams as negative or positive, is in contradiction to the statement of R’ Bana’ah, since it implies that there is indeed such a thing as an absolute positive or negative dream, which cannot be influenced by interpretation.
In the text of Joseph’s dream, it says (Genesis 37:5; 10) that ‘he told the dream to his brothers’. This might be understood to mean that the ‘telling’ of the dream ‘with its interpretation’ was the factor that upset Joseph’s brothers and aroused jealousy. However, this analysis can be refuted since in the case of Joseph’s dream the interpretation of his dream was so apparent, that it was unnecessary to even offer an interpretation. Indeed, the brothers of Joseph understood the obvious meaning and were therefore jealous.
Therefore, from the story of Joseph’s dream one cannot prove that it was the interpretation rather than the dream itself that caused the implementation of the dream, as there existed only one interpretation that the “eleven stars bowing down to me” meant that his brother would be subservient to him. Furthermore, there is no mention of the interpretation in the text.
However, the view of R’ Bana’ah might be supported by an analyses of the story of Pharaoh’s dream (Genesis 41:1). In the narrative Pharaoh requested an interpretation to his dream but was unsatisfied until he heard the interpretation of Joseph.
This might suggest that Pharaoh knew that the implementation of the dream depended ‘on the mouth’, i.e. the interpretation that he accepts as a meaning of the dream. He therefore rejected the unacceptable interpretations of the necromancers until he heard an interpretation that satisfied him.
This might be consistent with the view of R’ Bana’ah.
After further analysis it becomes clear that the story of Pharaoh’s dream does not lend support to this view. On the contrary it reflects the view that there is only a single interpretation to a dream that cannot be altered.
A study of Pharaoh’s dream:
In Genesis (41:1) it relates that Pharaoh had a dream that he was standing by the river when out of the river emerged seven cows of beautiful appearance and robust flesh and they were grazing in the marshland. Then behold seven other cows emerged after them out of the river of ugly appearance and gaunt flesh; and they stood next to the cows on the bank of the river.
The cows of ugly appearance and gaunt flesh ate the seven cows of beautiful appearance and robust, and Pharaoh awoke.
He fell asleep and dreamt a second time and behold seven ears of grain were sprouting on a single stalk healthy and good. And behold seven ears thin and scorched by the east wind were growing after them. Then the seven thin ears swallowed up the seven healthy and full ears. Pharaoh awoke and behold it had been a dream.
In the morning his spirit was agitated so he sent and summoned all the necromancers of Egypt and all its wise men. Pharaoh related his dream to them but none could interpret them for Pharaoh.
The interpretation of the necromancers
The Midrash Rabba (69:6) states Rabbi Joshua of Siknin said in R. Levi’s name: There were indeed interpreters of the dream, but their interpretations were unacceptable to Pharaoh. He explains that the necromancers interpreted the dream that seven good cows mean that Pharaoh will beget seven daughters; the seven ill-favoured cows, that you will bury seven daughters. The seven full ears of corn, that you will conquer seven provinces; the seven thin ears, that seven provinces will revolt against you.
Joseph’s interpretation
Joseph said (41:25) to Pharaoh, the dream of Pharaoh is a single one. The seven good cows are seven years and the seven good ears are seven years. It is a single dream. Similarly, the seven emaciated cows that emerged after them and the seven scorched ears are seven years.
There should be seven years of famine.
Behold, seven years are coming of great abundance throughout the land of Egypt then seven years of famine will arise after them and all the abundance in the land of Egypt will be forgotten.
As for the repetition of the dream to Pharaoh it is because the matter stands ready before G-d and G-d is hastening to accomplish it.
Now let Pharaoh seek out a discerning and wise man and set him over the land of Egypt and let him prepare the land of Egypt during the seven years of abundance. Let them gather all the food of this approaching good years and the food will be a reserve for the land against the seven years of famine, which will befall the Land of Egypt so that the land will not perish in the famine.
The Biblical narrative concludes that the matter appeared good in the eyes of Pharaoh and in the eyes of his servants.
What was the novelty of Joseph’s interpretation over the interpretation of the necromancers? The interpretation of Joseph is of the simplest logic. Emaciated cows and ears represent famine and good cows and healthy ears represent years of abundance. Indeed, the river Nile was the source of water for agriculture in Egypt. Therefore the fat cows and emaciated emerging from the river Nile can not mean anything else than years of plenty and famine respectively.
On the contrary the interpretation of the necromancers are less logical that the interpretation of Joseph.
However, when analysing the introduction of the interpretation of Joseph one can understand the novelty in his interpretation. He opens by emphasising that ‘the dream of Pharaoh is a single one.’
This point eluded the necromancers. They thought that since Pharaoh had the dreams in two parts they reflected two separate interpretations. They therefore gave two interpretations one referring to the conquering of seven provinces and the revolt of seven provinces and the second dream referring to the birth of seven daughters and the burial of another seven daughters.
Furthermore, the interpretation of the necromancers did not explain another enigmatic portion of the dream, ‘and they stood next to the cows on the bank of the river.’
Why did the emaciated cows stand next to the fat cows on the bank of the river? However, Joseph understood that this meant that although the two periods of seven years will follow one another, there had to be a relevant overlap of the final seven years on the first seven years.
This was answered in Joseph’s interpretation that Pharaoh should appoint someone to oversee the gathering of the food during the seven years of plenty to preserve for the seven years of famine.
According to this analysis of the story of Pharaoh’s dream, it is evident that the reason that Pharaoh did not accept the interpretation of the necromancers was not because he knew that whatever interpretation was given would follow the mouth of the interpreter and therefore for whatever reason did not accept their interpretation but rather because there was a single absolute interpretation which only Joseph offered and therefore satisfied Pharaoh.
This enforces the above-mentioned contradiction to the statement of R’ Bana’ah that realization of dreams follows the mouth, implying the possibility of more than one interpretation to a dream and the absence of negative or positive dreams.
The great Talmudic medieval sage Maharsha reconciles this contradiction. He explains that in Biblical and Talmudic literature it refers to three categories of dreams. The first is a type that has more than one interpretation. The Talmud says (Berachot 56a) Abaye and Rava came before Bar Hedya, an interpreter of dreams and said that they both saw in their dreams a pomegranate sprouting from the mouth of a keg. To Abaye Bar Hedye said, your merchandise will be expensive like a pomegranate. But to Rava he said, your merchandise will be tart like a pomegranate, i.e. you wine will be bitter, and everyone will therefore despise it.
In this category if none interprets the dream, although there exists the negative potential as there exists positive, there will be not any negative effect in reality. This is the reference of R’ Bana’ah’s statement that the realization of a dream follows the mouth of the interpreter.
There is second category of dreams that have a particular interpretation and can therefore be considered either a negative or positive dream. But nevertheless its interpretation can change the dream from either positive to negative or from negative to positive. The Talmud (Berachot 56b) states that whoever sees a well in a dream beholds peace for him or herself. However if the dreamer contemplates an ominous passage pertaining to wells it can be transmuted negatively.
A third category of dreams is prophetic. Prophetic dreams have only a single interpretation and cannot be changed. In this category fall the dreams of Jacob, Joseph and Pharaoh.
In all these three categories it recognises the significance of dreams that they can be interpreted, in contrast to the opinion of the psychiatrists and psychoanalysts in the beginning of this essay. However, there is indeed a fourth category in Jewish thought that recognises that many dreams have no relevance whatsoever.
The Abarabnel (Genesis 40:24) writes that dreams are the revelation of disorganized thoughts that are suppressed during waking hours and released during sleep. Such dreams are vain, have no meaning and have no effect one way or the other. This is consistent with the views of the psychiatrists and psychoanalysts mentioned at the beginning of this essay.
Furthermore, according to Maimonides (Mishne Torah Maaser Sheni 6:6) even specific dreams relating that certain money located in a particular place is tithe has no significance one way or another and the money can be used for profane purposes. The reason for this is that these dreams fall in the category of most dreams that have no significance at all.

12 abril 2011

Jewish Spiritual Direction

by Jacob J. Staub
The Jewish Spiritual Direction (JSD) program at the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College is now in its fifth year. After a decade of experiments with “spirituality programs,” RRC implemented the current program with the support of The Nathan Cummings Foundation. The object of JSD is discernment – to cultivate one’s ability to discern God’s presence in one’s life, to maintain an awareness of the interconnectedness of all things, to explore ways to be open to the Blessed Holy One in challenging, difficult, and joyful moments.
The Psalmist was considering this goal with the words, “Shiviti Adonai lenegdi tamid [I place the One before me perpetually].” R. Bahya Ibn Pakuda spoke about it in his Second Gate as noticing the Divine traces in all things. Maimonides wrote about it in the culmination of the Guide as experiencing the Divine kiss. In the depths of darkness, the Piesetzner Rebbe emphasized such discernment to his Hasidim in the Warsaw Ghetto.
Jews have effectively cultivated this awareness in the past by davvening three times a day (Jewish men, anyway) and by reciting berakhot (blessings) at dozens of moments each day. JSD does not replace these practices. Rather, it enhances them, by moving us to a state of awareness in which such practices resonate with our experiences.
One of the great challenges for contemporary liberal Jews is sanctifying the everyday. We are aware of God while singing together in synagogue, or when we witness a sunset, a birth, or a wedding. We have more difficulty, however, on supermarket checkout lines, in traffic jams, or in proceeding through our daily routines.
The JSD program offers students three options: individual or group Jewish Spiritual Direction, and Spiritual Hevruta. Individually, students meet with their directors monthly for one hour. (Our eight directors–six rabbis and two transpersonal psychologists-are trained and supervised by Barbara Breitman.) Each meeting begins in prayerful silence that is broken when the student is ready to speak. The “director” listens attentively for moments in the student’s narrative at which God (however the Divine is named) sparkles through. She or he calls attention to a word, a moment, or pattern and brings the student back to it. In this way, students build up a vocabulary of sacred experiences that we then notice the next time they occur. Through this process, students define their own quests – which may or may not involve God, the Divine Process, the Holy, the Mysterious.
The impact on RRC culture was immediate and striking. With 75 percent of our students participating voluntarily (a percentage we have maintained in subsequent years), discussions in academic seminars and in the halls suddenly were focused on the inspiring and sacred. People had words to describe experiences that are awkward to articulate in the larger secular culture. Moreover, there has been a dramatic rise in student participation in communal spiritual practice – presumably because the idiom of traditional ritual and prayer now resonates more intensely.
Students also have the option of participating in supervised Spiritual Hevruta, where a pair of students commit to meeting weekly for an hour of mutual contemplative listening, or Group Spiritual Direction, where four or five students meet monthly with a director.
The discipline of Spiritual Direction was developed in the medieval Christian monastic tradition and has undergone a dramatic recent revival in liberal Catholic and Protestant circles. Once translated into a Jewish idiom, it is well suited because of its insistence that there are different spiritual “types” – intellectual, devotional, activistic, familial, aesthetic. It does not presume prayer or ritual to be the only, or preferred, mode of discerning God’s presence.
As our rabbis go out to work in pluralistic and diverse communities, it will serve them well that they have developed a practice of discernment that will sustain their spiritual needs and that they have a way of approaching Jewish religious practice that begins wherever a person finds sparkling moments in his or her life.

10 abril 2011

El Rabino Jacques Cukierkorn crea una nueva comunidad en Kansas City

NRT, Rabbi Cukierkorn go separate ways

Plans are currently underway to launch a new reform congregation in Kansas City. Its new spiritual leader will be Rabbi Jacques Cukierkorn, who just severed his relationship with the New Reform Temple. (For more information, see below.) Known by the name Temple Israel for now, it held services for the first time Friday, April 1, at St. Thomas the Apostle Episcopal Church in Overland Park. Rabbi Cukierkorn said services would be held there again tonight, Friday, April 8, at 6 p.m. at 12251 Antioch Road in Overland Park, and for the foreseeable future. For more information, contact Rabbi Cukierkorn at (913) 940-1011.
The 43-year-old native of Brazil came to Kansas City 10 years ago to serve as the rabbi for The New Reform Temple. Following several months of negotiations, that relationship ended last week.
“We reached a mutually agreeable deal. Sadly, it wasn’t the outcome that we wanted, but we are very pleased that we will be able to stay in town,” Rabbi Cukierkorn said this week.
Another key component of the agreement, which remains confidential, allows the Reform rabbi to serve another synagogue here in the city.
“This has been our home for 10 years. Our kids have grown up here, and one of our daughters was born here. I’m glad a group has asked us to stick around,” he said. He and his wife, Denisse, and their two daughters live in Overland Park.
Forming new ties

Congregants have helped shaped new synagogues here in Kansas City several times in recent history. Congregation Beth Torah was established in April 1988 following a leadership struggle at The Temple, Congregation B’nai Jehudah. Another rabbinic shuffle in the community helped create Or Hadash, a Reconstructionist congregation formed in June 2003 (which folded in the spring of 2010), and Kol Ami, which was established in June 2003.
Rabbi Cukierkorn, who serves as vice-president of the Society for Classical Reform Judaism and is a former president of the Rabbinical Association of Greater Kansas City, said about 50 people attended services last week with just one day’s notice. Approximately 50 families to date have expressed interest in helping form the new congregation.
“We want to form a congregation that is truly inclusive and welcoming and diverse. We will welcome people who have different levels of commitment to Judaism,” he said.
He stressed that absolutely nothing about a new congregation has been finalized yet, including the congregation’s name. In the first draft of the congregation’s proposal, it states, “As a congregation-oriented organization, the vision, mission, governance, services and even the name of our temple or synagogue will be determined through discussion and consensus.”
Rabbi Cukierkorn expects that the congregation will look for a more permanent site to meet in the future. Many of the families who attended the first service have been affiliated with The New Reform Temple, which is located at 7100 Main in Kansas City, Mo., but Rabbi Cukierkorn stated that he is not “aiming to take anyone from The New Reform Temple.”
“Some may leave and follow me, some may leave and go elsewhere and some may stay. My aim is not to hurt the congregation,” Rabbi Cukierkorn said.
The rabbi was able to organize the first service last week on such a short notice with a little help from his friends. A colleague, The Rev. Gar Demo at St. Thomas the Apostle Episcopal, offered the meeting space. Rabbi Cukierkorn already owned a Torah, and he learned that Debby Simon still had an ark from her days as an Or Hadash board member.
“I asked her if she would lend it to me, rent it to me or sell it to me,” Rabbi Cukierkorn said. “She said she ran into many obstacles when she was trying to organize Or Hadash and that only one rabbi offered support: me! So, she said she would be honored to give it to us as a gift.”
Rabbi Cukierkorn has many ideas he hopes to incorporate, with input from other organizers, in a new congregation. For instance, instead of running a traditional, standardized religious school, he proposes congregants be given the opportunity to develop their own IJPs, or Individual Jewish Plans to promote life-long Jewish learning.
“In schools children get IEPs (Individual Education Plans). We will work together to set education goals and focus on experiential learning and community building,” he said. “As a rabbi I am certainly capable of running a religious school, but I have come to believe that religious school alone can be detrimental to a Jewish education. With an IJP, we will work together to set educational goals, where congregants can learn on their own, with the rabbi or as part of study groups, according to their schedules. Our shul will focus on experiential learning and community building,” he said.
His vision calls for Sundays to be mostly family days. Instead of gathering together every Sunday morning at religious school, he hopes families will celebrate Shabbat at home and together at services every Friday evening. Then, several times a year, he proposes a day-long activity for congregants, allowing both learning and social components.
The rabbi, who has published several books, is also known for his work with interfaith families and his travels to help people learn about Judaism in Latin America and Europe. He hopes to be able to continue working in those areas at a new congregation and make this international outreach an integral part of the new congregation identity.
“We have lots of ideas. But most importantly we want to engage the whole family and make Judaism meaningful for them.”
A Facebook page for Temple Israel has already been created. It can be viewed by searching Temple Israel in Kansas City.


05 abril 2011

The Reform Movement in Judaism

Excepcional texto de Philipson en su libro ‘The Reform Movement in Judaism”. El libro se publicó en Londres, en 1907. Es una historia del movimiento. Y en las primeras páginas hace una declaración de principios espectacular por medio de un breve repaso a la historia del Judaísmo. ¿Dónde está hoy en día ese espíritu en el Judaísmo Reformista?

Merece la pena una rápida lectura.

Desde la página 3 hasta el final del primer párrafo de la 6, un breve repaso por la historia de un Judaísmo abierto al mundo desde sus inicios, en oposición al ensimismamiento que introdujo la guetoización: de todos los lugares donde el pueblo de Israel residió se incorporaron conocimientos y tradiciones al Judaísmo, salvo el periodo en que los judíos fueron obligados a vivir en el Gueto. Al abandonarlo, algunos optaron por mantenerse al margen de la sociedad, dando lugar a un Judaísmo obsesionado con el legalismo; otros, siguiendo el modo habitual de los antepasados, prefirieron vivir en la sociedad y de cara a los avances culturales, científicos y religiosos que encontraron.

La perspectiva que se maneja da el tono a la declaración de principios que sigue entre las páginas 6 y 8: tradición frente a tradiciones; fe religiosa universalista frente a nacionalismo religioso; Era Mesiánica frente a Mesías personal.

A continuación (entre las páginas 8 y 12) muestra el contexto en que tuvo lugar - y que favoreció - la salida del Gueto para el Judaísmo Reformista. Y lo hace presentado los tres pilares que permitieron la integración: los nuevos movimientos intelectuales judíos alejados de las antiguas tradiciones del Gueto, el aprendizaje de la lengua de la cultura de acogida y la aceptación de la emancipación civil ofrecida por José II. Ejemplos de ello son la publicación de Ha Meassef en 1783, dirigida por amigos y discípulos de Medelssohn, que revitaliza el uso del Hebreo como lengua literaria, al tiempo que pedía que se educase a los hijos en la cultura alemana y se abandonase así el aislamiento intelectual; o la tormenta que se desata en 1796 en Holanda cuando la congregación Adath Jeshurun decidió eliminar del rezo unos pyiutim e introducir en algunas partes del servicio la lengua vernácula.